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By: K. Kasim, M.B. B.CH. B.A.O., M.B.B.Ch., Ph.D.

Program Director, William Carey University College of Osteopathic Medicine

Meanwhile symptoms uric acid buy discount dramamine 50 mg on line, awareness of threats to species diversity and causes of extinction was reaching a broader professional and public audience treatment quadricep strain dramamine 50mg sale. Field biologists symptoms glaucoma dramamine 50mg for sale, ecologists symptoms breast cancer order generic dramamine from india, and taxonomists, alarmed by the rapid conversion of the rainforests-and witnesses themselves to the loss of research sites and study organisms-began to sound alarms. By the early 1980s, the issue of rainforest destruction was highlighted through a surge of books, articles, and scientific reports. The complex relationship between development and conservation created tensions within conservation biology from the outset, but also drove the search for deeper consensus and innovation (Meine 2004). Prior to the meeting, the organizers formed two committees to consider establishing a new professional society and a new journal. In planning the event, Walter Rosen, a program officer with the National Research Council, began using a contracted form of the phrase biological diversity. The wide impact of the forum and the book assured that the landscape of conservation science, policy, and action would never be the same. For some, conservation biology appeared as a new, unproven, and unwelcome kid on the conservation block. Its adherents, however, saw it as the culmination of trends long latent within ecology and conservation, and as a necessary adaptation to new knowledge and a gathering crisis. As the Modern Synthesis rearranged the building blocks of biology, and new insights emerged from population genetics, developmental genetics (heritability studies), and island biogeography in the 1960s, the application of biology in conservation was bound to shift as well. Conservation biology paid attention to the entire biota; to diversity at all levels of biological organization; to patterns of diversity at various temporal and spatial scales; and to the evolutionary and ecological processes that maintain diversity. In particular, emerging insights from ecosystem ecology, disturbance ecology, and landscape ecology in the 1980s shifted the perspective of ecologists and conservationists, placing greater emphasis on the dynamic nature of ecosystems and landscapes. It provided an interdisciplinary home for those in established disciplines who sought new ways to organize and use scientific information, and who followed broader ethical imperatives. It also reached beyond its own core scientific disciplines to incorporate insights from the social sciences and humanities, from the empirical experience of resource managers, and from diverse cultural sources (Grumbine 1992; Knight and Bates 1995). Conservation biology acknowledged its status as an inherently "value-laden" field. Conservation biology recognized a "close linkage" between biodiversity conservation and economic development and sought new ways to improve that relationship. As sustainability became the catch-all term for development that sought to blend environmental, social, and economic goals, conservation biology provided a new venue at the intersection of ecology, ethics, and economics (Daly and Cobb 1989). To achieve its goals, conservation biology had to reach beyond the sciences and generate conversations with economists, advocates, policy-makers, ethicists, educators, the private sector, and community-based conservationists. In harnessing that knowledge and meeting those demands, it offered a new, integrative, and interdisciplinary approach to conservation science. Scientific organizations and foundations adjusted their funding priorities and encouraged those interested in the new field. A steady agenda of conferences on biodiversity conservation brought together academics, agency officials, resource managers, business representatives, international aid agencies, and non-governmental organizations. In remarkably rapid order, conservation biology gained legitimacy and secured a professional foothold. Conservation biology was caricatured as a passing fad, a response to trendy environmental ideas (and momentarily available funds).


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All managers should ensure that there have been discussions about the theme prior to the Refresher session treatment quietus tinnitus order 50mg dramamine with amex, that everyone has had an opportunity to get involved in the pre-session preparations before it starts treatment lupus trusted dramamine 50mg. The senior manager in an office might highlight the theme and approach of the upcoming Refresher session in a monthly staff meeting medicine zetia buy genuine dramamine on line. That would be an appropriate time to announce the focal point and/or session facilitator(s) treatment jammed finger 50mg dramamine sale, to encourage input from everyone, and to distribute any pertinent materials. Consultations with the local Staff Association, the results of focus group discussions/participatory assessments, feedback from field offices, and other types of conversations will be important before the refresher session to ensure that the general concerns underlying the theme are actively identified and a platform for constructive consultation is established. Just as adequate pre-session preparation will help keep the Refresher from being merely a one-off event, so will follow-up later. Working groups could be formed before or during the Refresher session to examine challenges identified. These groups must be given time to work and have a scheduled opportunity to feed back their conclusions to the rest of the office after a few weeks. Depending on the solutions they identify, more than one follow-up session may be necessary to test the changes of behaviour identified. Posters and other visual reminders will help keep staff aware of the theme for the remainder of the year. Likewise, it will be important to include the theme as a topic in consultations with stakeholders, including Implementing Partners, refugees, interpreters, and government officials as appropriate. Focused discussion with staff associations can greatly assist in ensuring that issues are identified and proposals are outlined for practical, focused and constructive follow up. Note that the session, as well as the discussions both before and after, should ensure sufficiently detailed analysis of the concerns surrounding Workplace Conflict. At the same time, it must be noted that the CoC Annual Refresher Session is not an appropriate forum for debating alleged current misconduct in the office, for mobbing or insinuation, or for targeting behaviour and conduct of one individual as opposed to another within the operation. With reference to the Code of Conduct, it should be noted again that all staff should remain cognizant of the fact that the best means for improving the conduct of others is to set the bar high through their own example. Every day in operations around the globe, staff are demonstrating their commitment to these values and principles including in extreme and challenging contexts. Facilitators are invited to ensure some examples of excellence in service within the context of WpC prevention / resolution are shared with the Ethics Office. The information that follows pertains specifically to creating the agenda for the 2010 Refresher session on the theme "Dealing with Workplace Conflict". As the facilitator or focal point responsible for the Refresher, you should begin by meeting with the senior manager in your office-the Representative, Chief of Mission, or Director. The senior manager will need to play a leadership role in promoting constructive dialogue and in facilitating active follow up, so consultation is essential. Discussions should also take place with staff associations and other key stakeholders within the operation, and staff generally will likely want to have an opportunity for consultation. If you will have a number of participants who have not completed an introductory orientation to the Code of Conduct, you may be able to group these people separately and include more introductory material in their session. Receive authorization, if necessary, for any session-related expenses such as photocopying, purchase of supplies, and refreshments that are to be provided. Once you have all the necessary information from these meetings, you can begin to design the agenda. Then proceed to brainstorming possible activities that will help participants of the session(s) meet those objectives. Example During the meeting, the Representative in your host country agreed on the stated objectives for the session but wants you to place particular emphasis on "mobbing", because there were a few cases in the office last year. She / He hopes the discussion in the Refresher session will shed some light on how to address the issue and identify some recommendations for improving the situation. So, you make a note to include in the agenda discussions of a case study focused on "mobbing". You will request volunteers for a special task force to look at the item about which the Representative is particularly concerned.

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Many countries are using trade policies medicine you can overdose on order dramamine now, especially infant industry protection in order to promote domestically produced biofuels symptoms 14 days after iui order 50mg dramamine. Some countries medicine encyclopedia discount dramamine 50 mg with visa, like Indonesia symptoms bone cancer buy dramamine with american express, are considering export tariffs to encourage biofuels to be used domestically instead of being exported. This section reviews the main biofuel-related policies in selected Asian countries, especially focusing on formal numerical targets, fuel blending mandates, economic incentives to promote biofuels, and measures to facilitate non-food based biofuels. Blending mandates have been introduced or planned in most countries except Singapore and Japan. Thailand and the Republic of Korea experienced opposition from industry when they tried to introduce blending mandates, and government plans were postponed or scaled back. India is the only country in the list that has fixed the purchase price of ethanol and biodiesel. Some countries have started to address the negative effects of using edible feedstocks for biofuel production. China drastically changed its policy in June 2007 by deciding not to approve any new projects using grain-based ethanol. Other countries are investigating and promoting the production of biofuels from alternative feedstocks such as jatropha. However, in May 2007 it issued a new policy that energy crops should not compete with grain. The government stopped approving new projects using food based ethanol and urged the current facilities to switch to new sources such as sorghum, batata, and cassava (Sun 2007). The government mandated blending of 10% ethanol as a trial in some regions and provides incentives, such as subsidies and tax exemptions (Global Bioenergy Partnership 2007). India is promoting bioethanol and biodiesel through phased mandates, fixed prices, and tax incentives. Due to a supply shortage from 2004 to 2005, the ethanol blending mandate was made optional in October 2004, but it resumed in 20 states from October 2006. A nationwide 5% blending mandate for diesel is planned (Global Bioenergy Partnership 2007). To address the fuel versus food issue, the government is considering production of ethanol from sweet sorghum, sugar beet, cassava, and tapioca, and production of biodiesel from non-edible seed bearing trees/shrubs like jatropha (Subramanian 2007). The national government considers the issue of potential food-fuel conflict to be very important, and the delay in announcing the new biofuel 118 Prospects and Challenges of Biofuels in Asia: Policy Implications policy (as of February 2008) could be evidence that it is be approaching the biofuel issue cautiously. Policy discussion focuses on planting biofuel crops on wastelands throughout the country and integrating production with rural development programs. The government is also encouraging additional feedstocks including jatropha, nipah, sago and oil palm biomass (Lunjew 2007). Indonesia is experiencing falling oil production, and its oil exports are falling even faster due to increased domestic consumption, so the government wants to replace some domestic oil consumption with biofuels. It set a target to increase biodiesel use to 2% of its energy mix by 2010 (Legowo 2007). Although the Indonesian state-owned oil firm is selling blended biodiesel, it cut the blend to 2. Indonesia has imposed export taxes on crude palm oil to discourage exports and save it for domestic cooking use, and it has also recently imposed a 2% export tax on biofuels (Leow 2008; Commodity Online 2008). Thailand, a low-cost sugar producer, plans to replace 20% of its vehicle fuel consumption with biofuels and natural gas within the next five years (Waranusantikule 2008). Tax breaks for 10% ethanol blended gasoline have been used to maintain a consistent price advantage, which has increased consumption 23-fold in 2004 and 11fold in 2005. After consumption increases stalled, the government took steps to increase the price difference (Kojima et al. However, the government has not been able to fully implement the blending mandate for ethanol due to opposition from the automobile industry (Worldwatch Institute 2007). In contrast, a mandatory blend of 2% palm oil (B2) for diesel vehicles is planned in 2008 (Waranusantikule 2008).

In older infants and children symptoms in spanish 50 mg dramamine, altered mental status may be due to electrolyte and other metabolic or endocrine abnormalities medications canada order genuine dramamine on-line. Psychiatric conditions rarely cause coma or stupor in children; adolescents may rarely present with psychosomatic symptoms (feigning unresponsiveness) medicine venlafaxine order dramamine 50mg with mastercard. It is characterized by an acute onset of vomiting medicine kim leoni order dramamine 50mg, combativeness, and mental status changes ranging from delirium to coma. Hepatic enzyme levels and serum ammonia levels are elevated; hypoglycemia, metabolic acidosis, and cerebral edema may occur. Choking, drowning, or suffocation will cause acute anoxia encephalopathy; other causes to consider are severe anemia, severe methemoglobinemia, carbon monoxide poisoning, and hypothermia or hyperthermia due to extreme environmental anticonvulsant levels. Preventive Task Force since 2001 because early detection of and intervention for hearing loss are clearly beneficial to language development, and there has been minimal risk associated with the screening and treatment for the condition. Many cases of hearing loss, however, are progressive and may not be detected at birth. Children with acquired or late-onset hearing loss may present with a more subtle problem, such as poor school performance. Sometimes children with effusion or eustachian tube dysfunction present with a complaint of hearing loss. The role of the primary care practitioner is to identify the hearing loss and make appropriate referrals for comprehensive evaluation and treatment. Identifying hearing loss as early as possible is critical to minimizing the adverse effects on speech and language and school performance. Small tympanic membrane perforations have little effect on hearing, but large perforations may. Before age 4 months, the excessive compliance of the ear canal limits the usefulness of the test. Once a child can cooperate, pure tone audiometry with bone and air conduction results is recommended; most children can be reliably tested by this method by age 4 years. Referral for testing via other methods (depending on the age of the child) may be indicated if a child is too young to complete pure tone audiometry or if they are unable to cooperate with the testing. For older children, inquire about noise exposure, trauma, and toxic ingestions or exposures. A family history of hearing loss, a history of bacterial meningitis, and characteristics of syndromes associated with hearing loss are risk factors at any age. A family history positive for hearing loss developing under age 30 years, kidney abnormalities, different colored eyes, a white forelock of hair, night blindness, cardiac arrhythmias, or sudden cardiac death should raise suspicion for hereditary causes of hearing loss. On the physical examination, carefully assess the head and neck for head shape, abnormal hair findings (white forelock), branchial cleft remnants, and abnormal ear findings. Eye placement and color should be noted; microphthalmia or retinitis could suggest a congenital infection. Skin and neurologic examinations are also important; any characteristics suggestive of genetic syndromes should be noted. A history of absent or delayed language milestones is significant in the evaluation of hearing loss. Some general "red flags" suggesting language delays include (1) not startling to loud sounds by 3 months, (2) not vocalizing by 6 months, (3) not localizing speech or other sounds by 9 months, (4) not babbling multiple sounds or syllables by 12 months, (5) not saying "mama" or "dada" specifically by 13 months, (6) less than 50% of speech understandable by evaluation and treatment by audiology, otolaryngology, and speech pathology. Genetics consultation may be helpful since approximately half of sensorineural hearing loss cases are associated with a genetic etiology. Genetics can aid in providing a specific diagnosis, prognostic factors, and counseling on associated risks and conditions. Genetic counseling is becoming an increasingly important part of the evaluation of hearing loss as advances in genetics are identifying mitochondrial disorders and mutations associated with an increased susceptibility to deafness. Hearing impairment associated with some genetic disorders may not develop until later in childhood. Aminoglycosides, loop diuretics, and chemotherapy agents (especially cisplatin) are the most common offenders. Perilymph fistulas, vascular insults to the inner ear, and a first episode of Meniere disease should also be considered.

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