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Station #9 - Transport to emergency room: Any personnel exhibiting any signs or symptoms of exposure should be transported to the emergency room for evaluation and observation treatment 4 anti-aging 5ml betoptic free shipping. These solutions are not to be used to decontaminate turnouts or exposed skin under any circumstances medications cause erectile dysfunction generic betoptic 5 ml mastercard. Other special decontamination solution mixes will only be used in those situations when it is determined that the detergent and water solution is inappropriate symptoms 6 year molars cheap betoptic 5 ml with mastercard. Contaminated civilians that are exhibiting signs or symptoms of exposure should be treated as patients treatment 5th toe fracture purchase discount betoptic on-line. Due to the risk of secondary contamination, all patients should undergo emergency field decontamination at the scene before being evaluated by medical personnel or being transported to the emergency room. Medical personnel should not accept any patient that has not been grossly decontaminated. Patients will be flushed for up to fifteen minutes, depending on the material recommendations on patient decontamination. They should also undergo decontamination when they have finished decontaminating the patient. However, some form of privacy screen should be erected to protect the modesty of those being decontaminated. Further flushing will be performed depending on the extent of contamination and subsequent adverse health effects. Rapid Intervention (Two-in/Two-out) Incident Commander must maintain rapid intervention capability (Two-out) so that, should the need arise, a rescue crew is readily available to provide for the rescue of any responders operating within a hazard area (Two-in). This includes entering a structure reported to be on fire, operating in close proximity to the structure during exterior operations, confined space operations, rope rescue, haz-mat, etc. Rapid intervention is the systematic management of response to a "Mayday" situation where the need for an immediate rescue of emergency responders has become necessary. Responsibility: Incident Commanders are ultimately responsible for the incident outcome and the safety of all responders operating at the scene. Therefore, Incident Commanders must maintain a constant balance between the urgent need to perform critical tasks and the personal safety of the responders performing those tasks. To support this, and before responders can be assigned to operate within a hazard area, Incident Commanders must establish a Two-out resource capable of providing rapid intervention. Incident Commanders must maintain this capability throughout the incident until the risk to responders has been sufficiently mitigated. The following flowchart provides a decisionmaking guideline, illustrating a model sequence for determining how, and to what extent, Two-out capability should be provided so that it corresponds with the incident stage, size, complexity, and level of risk to responders. Two-out Staffing Options Initiating Two-out: During the "initial stage" of an incident, the Two-out provision may be provided as a secondary responsibility by the Pump Operator and the Incident Commander. The "initial stage" of an incident is defined as the stage that encompasses the tasks undertaken by the first arriving company with only one crew assigned or operating in the hot zone. This would be done as a short term assignment for incidents that can be quickly and safely mitigated because they are contained, limited to contents, and are of minimal risk to responders. A Stand-by Crew consists of at least two firefighters held outside the hazard area, available for immediate assistance or rescue of an entry crew. Locate and gain access to the firefighter in peril; Provide them with emergency air management; and to Provide reconnaissance information to the Incident Commander for the coordination of additional crews assigned to support the rescue effort. Back-up Crews provide Back-up Crews are intended to provide a crew of at least two protection because they are members positioned offensively with a charged hose line and/or positioned in a manner that other applicable equipment. In coordination with the Incident Commander and in order of priority, they are assigned for the specific purpose of 1. As dictated by fire and/or other hazardous conditions, protecting the means of egress for interior crews; 2. If priorities 1 and 2 are accounted for, conducting a primary search, or supplement initial fire attack efforts. Though maintaining Two-in/Two out is a requirement, how the Incident Commander chooses to do so is flexible.

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The skeletal system is the primary site of fluoride deposition in the body resulting in both beneficial and adverse effects medicine 44390 discount 5ml betoptic with visa. Dental or enamel fluorosis occurs when excess amounts of fluoride are medications54583 safe 5 ml betoptic, I ingested during tooth development (1-8 years of age) medications valium order genuine betoptic online. Mildly fluorosed enamel is full functional (deaesten and Thariani 1992) medications 2355 quality betoptic 5ml, but may be cosmetically objectionable. As the severity of dental fluorosis increases, the depth of the enamel involvement and the degree of porosity increases (Fejerskov et al. More severely fluorosed enamel is more porous, pitted, and discolored and is prone to fracture and wear because the well mineralized zone is very fragile to mechanical stress (denBesten and Thariani 1992; Fejerskov et al. Teeth that develop earlier in life appear to be less affected than those that develop later (Fejerskov et al. The average score of the two most severely affected teeth is used to derive the classification. The development and severity of dental fluorosis is dependent on the amount of fluoride ingested, the duration of exposure, and the stage of amelogenesis at the time of exposure. The relationship between fluoride exposure levels and the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis was first established in the 1930s and 1940s. There is an extensive amount of literature on the relationship between the prevalence of dental fluorosis and the concentration of fluoride in municipal water (e. Studies examining children living in communities with different fluoride levels found that the severity of dental fluorosis is directly related to fluoride exposure levels. Higher fluorosis severity scores were found in children living in communities with 4 ppm fluoride in drinking water compared to children living in communities with 1 ppm fluoride in drinking water (Heifetz et al. Studies in adults have not always found a direct relationship between severity of dental fluorosis and prevalence of dental caries (Eklund et al. At a water fluoride concentration of 1 ppm, the estimated prevalence of dental fluorosis is 48% (95% confidence interval of 40-57%) and the prevalence of fluorosis of aesthetic concern would be 12. Another meta-analysis found a significant association between dental fluorosis and use of fluoride supplements (Ismail and Bandekar 1999). There is also evidence that the prevalence of dental fluorosis has increased over time due to the multiple, widespread sources of fluoride in food processed with fluoridated water and dentifrices containing fluoride, which has resulted in higher fluoride exposure levels. For example in Kewanee, the prevalence in the very mild, mild, moderate, and severe categories was 10. Most of the increase was in the very mild and mild cafegories, which increased from 12. Although total fluoride intake was not measured, these studies indicate that intake by children at risk has increased since the 1940s, because fluorosis levels increased for all water fluoride levels. Another series of studies compared the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in 8-10 and 13-,15-year-old children living in communities with 1,2, 3, or 4 ppm fluoride in drinking water in 1980 to the prevalence in 1985 (Heifetz et al. While there were no marked changes in fluorosis levels in 8-10-year-old children, both the prevalence and severity increased in the 13-15-year-old children (this group of children also participated in the 1980 study). Increases in the 1-ppm communities were mostly in the category of barely visible white spots. However, the percentage of labial surfaces of incisors and canines from children in the 2-ppm group that had brown mottling increased from 0 to 7. Less marked increases in mottled and pitted teeth were seen in the higher exposure groups. The increased levels of fluorosis were attributed to increased fluoride exposure from multiple sources. However, the apparent increase in fluorosis did not continue from 1985 to 1990 (Selwitz et al. There is some evidence to suggest that exposure to very high levels of fluoride can increase the susceptibility to dental caries. However, for children with very mild, mild, or moderate fluorosis, no significant associations were found. It is possible that the higher prevalence of filled teeth was due to the increased rate of fracture and wear in severely fliorosed teeth rather than a higher risk of tooth decay. As with the dental effects, fluoride has both beneficial and adverse effects on bone. Because fluoride stimulates bone formation, and increases bone mass, especially in cancellous bone, and inhibit bone resorption, fluoride has been used as a treatment for osteoporosis.

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Museum curators have to consider many factors and ideas when designing their museum exhibits symptoms xxy generic 5 ml betoptic with amex. They need to think about what specific topics they want to share with the public among all the choices they have medications 512 generic betoptic 5ml visa, what kind of space they have available symptoms 24 cheap betoptic line, and who will come to see the exhibits treatment neuroleptic malignant syndrome cheap betoptic 5 ml overnight delivery. If you have visited a museum, think about what makes you want to return to specific exhibits. Your group will design a museum exhibit based on what you learned about New England slavery and/or the slave trade. For instance, you might start by thinking about a particular event, a place, or a person. Does your group have a particular point of view or a bias about what story should be told in your exhibit How will you get your visitors to think reflectively about slavery and the slave trade For instance, you know from the reading that a lot of information exists about slave ship captains but there is little about individual slaves on those ships. While delegates to the Constitutional Convention agreed that this was necessary, the division of powers and responsibilities between the national government and the state governments was no simple task. First, all laws passed by the federal government would apply equally to every citizen within the union. These powers included the ability to print money, to regulate commerce with foreign nations, and to raise and support a military. Third, powers that were not assigned to the federal government or prohibited to the states were reserved to the states or the people. Fourth, certain powers needed to be shared by the federal government and state government. In the British colonies of North America, mercantilist laws were circumvented by widespread smuggling. Race the idea that humans are divided into biologically distinct "races" that are identifiable by physical characteristics and innate behaviors is challenged by historians and anthropologists. Scholars today refer to the term "race" as the meanings that have been given to physical and cultural differences at particular historical moments. The concept of distinct and unchanging "races" did not become common in the United States until the late eighteenth century. Until that time, the physical differences and behaviors associated with particular groups were believed to result from the distinctive climates, foods, and cultural practices associated with their geographic origins. While physical and behavioral characteristics were understood to be inherited at least in part, it was also believed that over long periods of time in new environments, these characteristics could change. By the late eighteenth century, this "environmental" explanation of difference had given way to the idea that "races" have distinct, innate, and unchanging differences. The concept of "race" emerged in part out of new scientific beliefs that all natural phenomena could be organized into fixed categories. Another factor was the desire of Anglo-Europeans to distinguish themselves as citizens from the growing numbers of free people of color in the new American nation. Mercantilism Mercantilism is the theory that money is what makes a nation powerful. This theory led European nations from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century to view their colonies as a source of income. England passed laws based on this theory that prevented colonists in the Americas from trading with other countries or from manufacturing goods of their own. They are drawn from the experiences of teachers who have used Choices curricula successfully in their classrooms and from educational research on student-centered instruction. In smaller classes, the teacher can serve as the moderator of the debate, and administrators, parents, or faculty can be invited to play the roles of congressional leaders. Managing the Choices Simulation Recognize Time Limitations: At the heart of the Choices approach is the role-play simulation in which students advocate different options, question each other, and debate. Just as thoughtful preparation is necessary to set the stage for cooperative group learning, careful planning for the presentations and debate can increase the effectiveness of the simulation. Hence, if only one class period is available, student groups must be ready as soon as class begins. Teachers who have been able to schedule a double period or extend the length of class to one hour report that the extra time is beneficial. When necessary, the role-play simulation can be run over two days, but this disrupts the momentum of the debate.

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We wish to thank the following researchers for their invaluable input: James Campbell Associate Professor of Africana Studies and American Civilization Brown University Sarah Cleveland Fox International Education Intern Curriculum Writer Neta C medications a to z buy cheap betoptic 5 ml. Crawford Associate Professor (Research) Watson Institute for International Studies treatment 5 shaving lotion 5ml betoptic sale, Brown University Rebecca Leaphart Christiana Morgan Grefe Dan Devine Outreach Coordinator Office Assistant Director of Education and Public Programming Rhode Island Historical Society Steven Lubar Bill Bordac Professor of American Civilization medicine journal impact factor cheap betoptic 5ml without a prescription, Brown University Director treatment laryngitis cheap betoptic 5 ml online, John Nicholas Brown Center for the Study of American Civilization Professional Development Coordinator Joanne Pope Melish Joseph Opala Lucy Mueller Associate Professor of History, University of Kentucky Program Coordinator for Capitol Forum Adjunct Professor of History, James Madison University Barbara Shema Seth Rockman Keith Stokes Madeline Otis Anne Campau Prout the Choices for the 21st Century Education Program develops curricula on current and historical international issues and offers workshops, institutes, and inservice programs for high school teachers. Course materials place special emphasis on the importance of educating students in their participatory role as citizens. Biersteker Director, Watson Institute for International Studies Staff Associate Program Associate Assistant Professor of History, Brown University Director, Newport, Rhode Island Chamber of Commerce John Wood Sweet Assistant Professor of History, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Michael Vorenberg Associate Professor of History, Brown University Special thanks to Tim Bickford and Barry Marshall of Moses Brown School in Providence, Rhode Island for conceiving of this unit, contributing to its development, and writing the Day One lesson plan. We also wish to thank the Brown University Steering Committee on Slavery and Justice. A Forgotten History: the Slave Trade and Slavery in New England is part of a continuing series on international public policy issues. The Watson Institute for International Studies was established at Brown University in 1986 to serve as a forum for students, faculty, visiting scholars, and policy practitioners who are committed to analyzing contemporary global problems and developing initiatives to address them. Using an innovative approach to studentcentered instruction, Choices units develop critical thinking and civic judgment-essential ingredients of responsible citizenship. Understanding the Significance of History: Each Choices unit provides students with a thorough introduction to the topic under consideration. Students gain an understanding of the historical background and the status of current issues. With this foundation, students are prepared to thoughtfully consider a variety of perspectives on public policy. Exploring Policy Alternatives: Each Choices unit is built around a framework of alternative policy options that challenges students to consider multiple perspectives and to think critically about the issue at hand. Students are best able to understand and analyze the options through a cooperative learning/ role-play activity. The setting of the role play may be a Congressional hearing, meeting of the National Security Council, or an election campaign forum. Student groups defend their policy options and, in turn, are challenged with questions from their classmates. The ensuing debate demands analysis and evaluation of the many conflicting values, interests, and priorities reflected in the options. Choices curricula are informed by current educational research about how students learn best. Studies have consistently demonstrated that students of all abilities learn best when they are actively engaged with the material rather than listening passively to a lecture. Studentcentered instructional activities motivate students and develop higher-order thinking skills. However, some high school educators find the transition from lecture format to student-centered instruction difficult. Choices curricula offer teachers a flexible resource for covering course material while actively engaging students and developing skills in critical thinking, persuasive writing, and informed citizenship. Each Choices unit includes student readings, a framework of policy options, suggested lesson plans, and resources for structuring cooperative learning, role plays, and simulations. Opportunities abound for students to contribute their individual talents to the group presentations in the form of political cartoons, slogans, posters, or characterizations. Choices units offer students with diverse abilities and learning styles the opportunity to contribute, collaborate, and achieve. While often the triangular trade is mentioned, the role of New Englanders in the trade or the experience of enslaved people in the North is glossed over. A Forgotten History: the Slave Trade and Slavery in New England seeks to inform students of the economic and social impact of slavery and the slave trade in the North and to introduce students to enslaved people who lived at the time. Historians comment that New England has "forgotten" its slave-owning past, and that such a narrative-one that remembers abolition but not enslavement-has had far-reaching consequences for black-white relations and the nature of race in the United States. This unit explores the nature of the triangular trade and the extent of slavery in New England.

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Additionally medicine qd discount 5 ml betoptic free shipping, because they are asynchronous medications prolonged qt discount betoptic express, students and instructors can participate when most convenient for them medicine symbol order 5 ml betoptic mastercard. Instead of being put on-the-spot to answer a question in front of an entire class symptoms 2 weeks after conception buy betoptic 5ml with mastercard, students would have the time and intellectual space to study the content, reflect on the questions/prompts, and craft a thoughtful response. This can be especially beneficial to students who might need more time such as shy, nonnative speakers, and/or those with exceptional learning needs. For students who live in different time zones and countries, this can expand the accessibility to learning anytime, anywhere! Although not unique to online and blended learning, this flexibility is an important benefit to most students. For instance, online and blended education instructors have the opportunity to interact with their online and blended education students with depth and breadth outside of brick-and-mortar classrooms. In a F2F course, for example, the instructor may not have the opportunity to engage as much with her/his students because of the bounded class meeting time (e. It also offers instructors information about who their students are as learners and individuals. They might also ask students probing questions to help them delve deeper into the content by providing examples, categorizing information, debating various sides, substantiating their ideas, creating concept maps, and/or making connections to the real-world or other relevant resources. If students post when convenient for them, discussions may not seem very continuous. Some students, for instance, might find that waiting for a thoughtful response to a question or comment takes a while, and they lose motivation or fail to remember what the question or comment was that they were hoping a peer would respond to . Moreover, some students might find they are late to a discussion and have little more to offer because of earlier responses. Some might also feel pressure to respond and/or read every post so they do not miss out on learning the content. They may be very wordy or have grammatical or spelling errors that might impede not only comprehension of the post, but also learning about the topic studied. This might happen not only if a student posts a reply that is misunderstood, but it is also possible that some students might even be offended, when that was not the intention! Reflect on your own learning experiences in one of your favorite courses and how the instructor incorporated adult learning theory. This might happen because the instructor (or student) developed a question that falls flat because it was answered early and it does not address higher order levels of thinking. It might also happen if some students answer questions so thoroughly that some students feel as if they have nothing new or interesting to contribute. They found "three elements of structuring online discussions that significantly impacted meaningful discourse. Facilitator guidelines involves providing the guidelines for the facilitator of the discussion, if it is a student. Assessment rubrics (Wegmann & McAuley, 2014) communicate the grading criteria for participation (see Appendix A for a sample rubric). Finally, the posting protocols refer to not only the quantity, P a g e 112 frequency, and timing of posts, but also appropriate protocols for posting, such as incorporating respectful behavior (netiquette). Moreover, instructors should learn about how to craft good questions (Milman, 2009), in addition to a variety of ways to structure discussions so they go beyond simple Q & A. For example, instructors can incorporate compare/contrast, debate, cases, role-playing, and problem-based learning, just to name a few different types of strategies instructors might use. In "cognitive posts," instructors asked questions that required students to inquire into the topic at a deeper level. In "social posts," instructors shared their personal experiences and provided encouragement. Yet, it is important to emphasize that quality teaching posts were found to be more important than the quantity of teaching posts. For example, "instructors who posted less frequently but with more purpose had a higher level of critical thinking in their discussions" (Clarke & Bartholomew, 2014, p. Therefore, instructors should think thoughtfully and strategically about the quality and type of posts.

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